hello and welcome today we’re counting down the top 10 facts about nutrition and metabolism that you may not have known about so most people think that food is digested in your stomach but it actually starts to be digested while still in your mouth dietary polysaccharides are first digested in the mouth by salivary alpha amylase which breaks down the glucose alpha 1-4 glucose bonds in fact studies show that those are the low level of salivary amylase predisposes them to obesity so don’t know if you knew this but fiber can’t be digested by our bodies because we lack the enzymes to break it down so you know all those ads declaring how their food is high in fiber you’re getting zero energy and nutritional value from that but wait it’s still very important on the backend literally without it pooping would be terrible and it actually helps weight loss control blood sugar and reduce the chance of several chronic diseases so eat your fiber people anyone that knows me knows I’m a big believer in bread so here’s the science to back it up 45 to 65% of your total daily calories for an adult should be from carbohydrates carbohydrates are essential for your body’s energy production also red blood cells need a constant supply of glucose aka carbohydrates they can only use glucose probably most importantly is the fact that the brain needs glucose to function proteins and fatty acids do not cross the blood-brain barrier if you are lacking those oh so important carbohydrates your body resorts to starvation mode and produces ketone bodies to fuel the brain instead of glucose makes me wonder about all those people on those no carb diets or those so-called meatheads now I fully understand that expression yikes how is the health of your brain some fats are bad Doug we all knew that but other fats are actually crucial for our diet some fat leads to coronary heart disease while others help reduce the risk so how do you know which is which basically stay away from trans fat and saturated fat instead choose foods with mono unsaturated or polyunsaturated fats mono unsaturated fats have one double bond and polyunsaturated fats have several these double bonds affect the melting point so you can usually tell the good fat from the bad fat just by looking at it unhealthy saturated fats and trans fat are usually solid at room temperature such as pork fat or butter mono and polyunsaturated fats are Julie liquid at room temperature such as olive oil and tuna juice mmm tuna juice so on the note of fat some of the best types or the polyunsaturated fat that contain omega-3 this type of fat is usually found in fish and not only helps fight against the risk of coronary artery disease but can help protect against irregular heartbeats helps to lower blood pressure and decreases overall chances of sudden cardiac arrest did you know that approximately five to ten percent of the digestible energy and food is used in a process of what’s called the thermic effect of food or diet-induced thermogenesis this is where you use that energy to digest absorb and distribute all those macronutrients so it costs food to eat food the equation for weight loss is simple you need to use more energy than you absorb you can do this by increasing physical activity or decreasing your food intake however what makes it more complex is the fact that this will be different for all of us so don’t think that just because certain exercise or diet works for one person that it’s going to work for you diet exercise should be assessed on an individual basis so doctors all across America use what’s called the BMI index to help classify determine obesity I find this to be a very flawed system the body mass index only takes into account your weight and height nothing else the exact formula is weight in kilograms divided by your height in meters squared anything over 25 is considered overweight and anything over 30 is obese so according to the system I’m overweight I don’t think I’m in perfect shape but for someone who is more on the scrawny side to be called overweight would make me think this system is very flawed glucose is the main source of our body’s energy so many of us are worried about consuming too much glucose because we don’t want to get fat the good news is that even after consuming excess glucose the body doesn’t convert it to fat right away it gives you a chance to go to the gym sometimes between the next 10 to 18 hours to get rid of it how nice so how does your body hold onto this excess energy it stores the excess glucose as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles which holds a 10 to 18 hour supply of glucose the glucose in the liver storehouses can be used for blood homeostasis but the glucose in the skeletal muscle can only be mobilized during exercise so after that storage center is saturated then you guessed it the excess energy is converted to adipose tissue a.k fat I’m starving I hear this expression thrown around all the time when people begin to feel the little grumblings in their stomach but this of course is hyperbole technically if you’ve eaten anything in the past four hours you are still in the fed state and are still processing your previous nutrient intake if you have eaten anything in the past three days then technically you aren’t starving you’re a rather what’s called the post absorb if fasting state when you are starving your only source of blood glucose is gluconeogenesis that means you’ve depleted all your fat and all your glycogen stores so next time you feel the sting of hunger maybe try more accurate declaration such as I am famished or my glucose levels are feeling extra depleted so I hope you learn something new today and I’ll see you next time

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