buildings are made of bricks trees are made of wood but you are made of food you are what you decide rulz build on the side inertia is a property Bill Nye the Science Guy is brought to you by Heat Inc consuming the competition since 1986 there are special things in food called nutrients you can’t see but through laboratory studies we know a great deal about nutrients this is made of cloth and this is made of glass but you and I are made of food that’s right everything from your eyeballs to your elbows is made of food foods where you get your energy to that’s why it’s so important good nutrition take a look at this it’s our balanced diet nutrition platform of science in each of these three baskets we have the different kinds of foods you need to eat to stay healthy now in the first basket big basket we’ve got carbohydrates you get carbohydrates from things like fruits and vegetables also grains like you find in bread and pasta a carbohydrate so would give you energy probably to move around and go like this and in this basket we’ve got protein you get proteins from things like fish or beans beans beans beans bean and beets protein helps build red blood and strong muscle see protein is what you’re made of it’s your structure like your bones and skin and eyes are made of protein protein kinda like unnatural plastics what gives you shape and structure now in this bass get the smaller one we have fats the kind of fat you might get from vegetable oil and you’ve got to have some fats to be healthy cuz your nerves are coated with fat your brains got a lot of fat also you have fat all over your body for insulation and padding now throughout all these foods and all the different baskets are chemicals called vitamins and minerals minerals are like rocks now without vitamins and minerals you can’t use the nutrients and the other food you have to have all these different kinds of foods to be helpful to have good nutrition think about it a balanced diet gives you all the nutrients you need most of us make about a liter of saliva every day that’s a lot of spit so let’s have something eat shall we are you close it write down everything you eat for a whole day or better yet a whole wheat you’d be surprised at how much you have to eat just to keep going works its way down our esophagus our food to then a valve over our stomach opens the food gets in our stomach to where peace that’s good news hola my favorite Ahuja the pyloric valve opens what the pyloric valve it opens below let’s food pass from our stomach into our small intestine Wow wait something’s wrong one of the food groups is missing do you know which one dessert that’s better how do we know how many calories are in food well please consider the following calories are a measure of energy heat energy when we combine the chemicals in this match with oxygen in the air we’re giving off heat heat energy which we can measure in calorie fine this is exactly what we do with our food we combine them with oxygen million much much lower temperatures calories so suppose you want to know how many calories are in a banana here’s what we do we dry the banana out get most of the water out then we get something like these banana chips then we grind the chips into a powder to make sure that it burns evenly we get a nice even amount of oxygen we combine in another chemical that’s mostly oxygen this is a potassium nitrate Oh grind them up together then we put them in here this is a bomb calorimeter a bomb that measures calories and it’s not gonna blow up like a bomb but there will be a fire inside see in there is the banana powder and oxygen chemical mixture and these wires can set it burning electrically this key means it’s ready to go you ready I don’t know 3 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 oh I started it 3 2 1 yes burning see as the banana powder burns it’s giving off heat energy calories now the heats gonna get soaked up by the water in the beaker and that will make the temperature on this thermometer go up so a food calorie is the amount of heat energy it takes to heat one liter of water one degree Celsius that’s it that’s what it is one liter of water one degree Celsius so as it burns we can see the thermometer is going up a couple of degrees Celsius now if we measured all the calories in a typical banana carefully we find they’re about a hundred and thirty calories in every banana now a guy my side needs about 2,000 calories every day just to keep moving just to walk around I mean think of all that heat energy that’s a lot of energy but that’s what you need to keep going it’s a lot of calories well thank you for joining me on three two three one to consider the phone they say you are what you eat but even more are what you ate is what you’ve already that’s what you’re made think about who in your whole body we get minerals we need from the Earth’s crust we don’t have to eat rocks or dirt to get them nope we plants plants soak up water from the soil and at the same time they soak up mineral now whatever animal eats the minerals last gets to use them so for example broccoli has the mineral calcium in it and calcium is important for our teeth and bones we get other minerals from other plants like carrots or rhubarb see we need minerals but we don’t have to eat rocks to get them Oh see we need minerals but we don’t have to eat rocks or dirt to get them oh we have to have minerals but we don’t have to eat rocks to get them Oh above all experts on food emphasize the importance of balance time in which variety is essential every American worker should have 3 square meals each day including food that is no change a lot of protein food and vitamin D foods such as tarragon coal will iron is a mineral it’s a nutrient you get it from your food you need iron for your red blood cells and your muscles back this weight is made of mine but the amount of firearm you need every day it’s tiny you can get it from foods like cereal so take a look at this this is a magnet coated with plastic it’s on this special TV it spins now watch what happens when we add some cereal – this little beaker of water yeah we have to let it stir for a few minutes wait right there okay no just to back no you we look on the magnet there iron particles iron is a mineral stop right to the magnet it’s a nutrient that iron came right out of the cereal you get it from your food it’s a nutrient it’s part of your balanced diet hey let’s ditch this thing huh oh we don’t have to eat rocks to get him oh my name is Denise and I’m a food scientist and as a food scientist one of my job’s is to analyze the nutrient analysis of all the different foods when you’re talking about foods it’s important to keep in mind that all foods have the future to value to them one of the real fun parts of my job is that I get to smash everything up then cut it up then grind it up so I can get a well mixed sample after we grind them up then we stick them in the oven so we can dry them out this is the machine that we use to figure out how much fat is in the sample I’m just putting the potato chips inside this filter paper and I just sort of roll it up hook it up to this machine and it takes a while about six hours or so but uh this the ether the liquid here just pulls the fat right out of the sample what we do next is we take the dry sample this is the dried apple sample and we superheat it in this crucible to like a thousand degrees Fahrenheit or five hundred fifty Celsius but burns up everything except for the minerals these are the minerals that are in about two bikes of Apple and here you might have calcium zinc and sodium so after the fat test this is what the fat looks like in the beakers and this right here this is the Apple you can see there’s hardly any fat in this one in comparison to the chip some of the same sized sample and the chips have quite a bit more fat in them they’re pretty greasy and then finally you can look at the cupcake speaker and this right here it doesn’t look like there’s as much fat in it but this is more salt than as the saturated fat which isn’t really as good for your heart food its science its food science everything was very nice on packages of food sold in the United States there’s a list of nutrients it’s called the Nutrition Facts so if you look on a typical box of cereal like this one you’ll find a list of nutrients and for each nutrient there’s a daily value how much of that nutrient you need every day so like for example right here here’s vitamin A that tells you how much of the vitamin A you need every day is in a serving of this cereal and usually near the nutrition facts will be a list of the ingredients and the ingredients are listed in order the more of one ingredient well the higher it is on the list so if you see sugar first or second well there’s gonna be a lot of sugar and it might be a lot of empty calories in whatever food that is so the daily values allow you to compare one type of food to another type of food and make sure you’re getting all the nutrients you need every day your your daily value used to be created by Lucy they can Potter this kitchen or foods called carbohydrates are very good energy sources you can find carbohydrates and lots of different kinds of foods like fruits apples and oranges or vegetables like carrots and cucumbers or even in beans and bread and potatoes all of these carbohydrates are used so that our body can make energy you are made of protein proteins the building block of your body like bones skin tendons and teeth they’re all made of protein and you get protein from the food you eat now when you eat things that are made from animals like milk eggs or meat you’re getting what we call complete proteins now complete proteins or proteins that your body doesn’t make for itself but you’ve got to have and we need fruits and vegetables plants none of them have complete proteins but think about this if you eat certain plants together like rice and beans feed in what we call complementary proteins and the two of them work as a team to make complete proteins same thing is true of squash and soybeans or tofu they have complementary proteins and they make complete proteins here’s the thing in Central and South American cultures people have eaten rice with beans for centuries and in Asian cultures people beaten squash with soy beans or tofu or century coincidence I don’t think so here I have some complete protein no that’s yeah that’s ok no really I don’t I don’t want it our bodies need lots of different kinds of foods to stay healthy including fat our bodies needs that because it cushions are inside the palms of our hands the soles of our feet and even our butt all the fat our body needs in a day isn’t about one tablespoon of vegetable oil that’s about fifty milliliters that’s it that’s all and that’s the fat on fat just because two foods have the same number of calories that doesn’t mean they’re equally good for you let’s compare this soda with this potato they would both give you about the same amount of energy but this potato bill also gives your body protein to build strong muscles and minerals like iron that are good for your blood and fiber this week food through your system whereas that soda has no minerals no protein and no fiber nothing but a hundred calories from sugar now when foods have calories with almost no nutrients we like to call those empty calories excuse me empty calories I guess so we stick with a potato what’s good oh hi I was just commenting on how good this fiber is oh fiber is the stuff in certain foods that our bodies don’t even digest so why do we have it well it acts kind of like this plumbers tool he pushes the food through your insides and scrapes out things like bacteria and other things that can make us sick you can find fiber in foods like vegetables fruits and whole grains like bran and popcorn which you should probably eat a lot up to stay healthy fiber keeps our systems moving not really hungry anymore eat your fiber vitamins and minerals what vitamins and minerals for what balanced diet fabulous fibers of fibrous ‘ti fiber pushes the food through your insides ha so what is waste anyway well basically it’s what’s left over after your body is squeezed and extracted all the nutrients again from the food you eat it’s very natural it’s the last step in the digestion process every day when you’re not eating we say you’re fasting so when you sleep eight hours and you don’t eat we say that’s a fast so then in the morning when you get up you want to break your fast you want to eat break fast breakfast get it anyway that breakfast like this is very important because fuel for humans is food trying to run around all day without having eaten breakfast it’s like running a car on an empty gas tank so you gotta eat breakfast you’re not gonna have enough energy for the whole day your breakfast goes be slowed down so always eat breakfast then you’ll have enough energy for all day I’m here today to tell you about the benefits of the food weight pyramid now let’s say you had an extra 1,500 calories a day today okay what are some ways we could get those calories well we could eat fats and oils and sweets butter horns and chips and that kind of thing but you want to use those sparingly as you move down the pyramid more interesting milk yogurt cheese meat poultry fish eggs beans nuts that kind of thing and again eat more servings of those and look way down here vegetables and fruits yummy good eat about five servings of that you can’t overdo it but right here that’s where you want to be this is the foundation of our pyramid bread cereal rice and pasta it is good and it is good for you does that sound good and the beautiful part about all of this is that you can enjoy all that fruit and you can do it in your spare time does that sound good now do you have some friends that might like to get sit around and raid my fridge it’s full of lots of good food it gives you vitamins and energy but not just any food will do you need the kind of food that’s good for you candy good nutrition for good nutrition malnutrition inspiration could you twitch your limb for good nutrition for malnutrition inspiration good nutrition good nutrition well that’s our show thanks for watching you excuse me I’ve got some enjoyable see ya well produce our association with the National Science Foundation she lets you jump and play and as soon as you get out of bed she has a food that’s made 400 carbohydrate head miss carbohydrate head it’s miss carbohydrate head fruits and vegetables brimming with energy you’ll find them everywhere starring Carmel Miranda no batteries needed we have to have minerals but we don’t have to eat rocks to get him Oh

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